FALSE. Athens experienced a cultural crisis brought on by its history of feeling superior and special, then being populated by outside entrepreneurs. The central point of this antithesis was the denial that the world of nature, the world studied by physical science, is an organism, and the assertion that it is devoid both of intelligence and of life. Depending on their nature, evaluating _____ involves logical argumentation, scientific experiments and predictions, or the demonstration of skillful performance. "The unexamined life is not worth living" is a quote attributed to which famous philosopher? _____ is general knowledge of what does and does not produce human happiness. In Aristotelian terms, happiness is _____. This is what is meant by ‘teleology’ from the Greek teleoV meaning end. For Plato, knowledge is always about _____. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Protagoras was one of the later sophists who taught that might makes right. According to Aristotle, _____ is that which makes a thing what it is. What did Socrates say about the unexamined life? A vital aspect of Socratic teaching was _____. 9. In Plato's view, the "average person" _____. Entelechy. In Platonic terms, a thing's _____ is what makes it what it is. Greek, Philosophers. mikayla_fahey_smith. Aristotle thought of happiness in terms of _____. The pragmatic point of view holds that _____. ", The term "ethnocentrism" derives from Greek roots meaning "_____.". He was mentored by Plato and went on to become the mentor and tutor of Alexander the Great. In the philosophy of Aristotle, the actualization of the potential form or function of a substance. What we know today as the writings of Aristotle _____. Root Word Dictionary is the largest online dictionary of word roots. The Socratic method begins with the assumption that _____. The Subject Matter of Aristotle’s Metaphysics. For Aristotle, _____ is that at which all things aim. (B) It defines the scope of our potential as well-functioning human beings. Hylomorphism, (from Greek hylē, “matter”; morphē, “form”), in philosophy, metaphysical view according to which every natural body consists of two intrinsic principles, one potential, namely, primary matter, and one actual, namely, substantial form. In the Christian schools, especially after the beginning of the sixth century, it was customary to call the head of the school magister scholae, capiscola, or scholasticus. occurs when we hold a belief regardless of the facts, "Nothing anyone can say will make me change my mind.". Socrates believed that _____ is the essence of humanness. chies 1. two basic sections, each unevenly divided into two segments, illusion, informed opinion, deductive reasoning, and direct apprehension of the Good. the understanding of reality as it relates to living a good life. Plato divided the human soul into three parts: _____. Socrates asserted that a life devoid of philosophical speculation is not fully functioning and so lacks virtue or excellence. a rare human being whose very nature represents something elemental about the human condition, is defined as the interest of the stronger party. According to Plato, _____ make things uniquely and essentially what they are. As time went on, the last of these appellations was used exclusively. According to the Melchert text, we know about Socrates primarily, According to the Melchert text, in discussions with others, Socrates, agreement that a satisfactory answer hadn't been reached, According to the Melchert text, conversations with Socrates generally end with, According to the Melchert text, to benefit from a conversation with Socrates, you need to be, it is better than to suffer injustice than to do it. Zeno was born in about 490 B.C.E. Socrates believed that the teacher's role is to draw wisdom and clarity out of a disordered and confused soul. High attainment in culture, science, and the arts had only existed, however, where there was a large admixture of the Aryan. The Greek word is aition (plural aitia); sometimes it takes a feminine form, aitia (plural aitiai). (A) It describes the “inner urge” implanted by nature in all living things. The story of the Ring of Gyges concerns _____. This was the Cyrenaic view of happiness. Study Flashcards On Core 250 Exam #1 at Cram.com. Plato's dialogues, however, are a mixture of historical account and artistic license, much in the manner of the comic plays of the period. 10. the eternally existing form of the elephant, According to the Melchert text, if Plato is right, then if "Gertrude" names an individual elephant, the term "elephant" names, Forms are related to visible things by being, the prisoners represent all of us before we begin to search for wisdom, turning the soul of the student toward the real, As presented in the Melchert text, according to Plato, education is, As presented in the Melchert text, according to Plato, a moral person. Describe the Greek social and cultural conditions in the time after Aristotle's death that gave rise to Skepticism, Cynicism, Epicureanism, Stoicism, and Christianity. Argot definition, a specialized idiomatic vocabulary peculiar to a particular class or group of people, especially that of an underworld group, devised for private communication and identification:a Restoration play rich in thieves' argot. Aristotilian system: entelechy of every substance of a teleological system- blob of stuff (Hyle) trying to be a perfect example of inside dwelling (morphe) teleological system any system that tends toward an end goal (achieve something) See more. The belief that no matter how far back we push "ultimate" reasons, they always reduce to someone's preference is known as _____. Aristotle himself described his subject matter in a variety of ways: as ‘first philosophy’, or ‘the study of being qua being’, or ‘wisdom’, or ‘theology’. Although there were Greek philosophers before their respective births, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are the only three worth focusing on during this period. Which philosophical archetype believes that any claim to knowledge must be personally verified by our own senses? 20 terms. According to Democritus, humans are capable of having a direct experience (perception) of atoms. Plato, in his theory of forms, separates the sensible world (appearances) of the intelligible world (ideas) and the intelligible world was the only reality, the foundation of all truth. Eschatology definition is - a branch of theology concerned with the final events in the history of the world or of humankind. According to Socrates, all evil is _____. An aition is just whatever one can cite in answer to a “why?” question. To label the Sophists as "amoral" would mean to say that they are "immoral. Metaphysics is the area of philosophy that _____. One who is trapped in _____ will mock others' points of view without investigating them. Plato concluded that the solution to the basic problem of knowledge lay in acknowledging that _____. A "relativist" would be heard to say which of the following? We must achieve an understanding of Aristotle’s word entelechia , the heart of his definition of motion, in order to see that what it says cannot be said just as well by such a word as “transition.” Aristotle believed that the sensitive soul has the potential for deliberation. See more. Aristotle himself described his subject matter in a variety of ways:as ‘first philosophy’, or ‘the study of being quabeing’, or ‘wisdom’, or ‘theology’. Although there were Greek philos… _____ taught that it is wrong for the superior individual to suffer at all. 9. For Aristotle, the body and soul are not two separate elements but are one thing. The Greeks won the day against enormous odds. The concept is intimately connected with Aristotle’s distinction between matter and form, or the potential and the actual. _____. Thrasymachus tells Socrates that justice _____. A complete explanation of any material change will use all four causes. _____. The strangeness of the word “entelechy” masks the contradiction between these two claims. The belief that knowledge is determined by specific qualities of the observer is known as _____. Socrates believed that human excellence was based on a special kind of knowledge that the Greeks referred to as _____. Aristotle based his ethics on how we do behave, not on some "higher" ideal. The root entero-is used in many words related to the intestines, such as enterology (the branch of medicine dealing with the intestines). Summary of Metaphysics by Aristotle. _____ refers to the subjective mental acceptance that a claim is true. Tricker and a thief Son of Zeus and Maia His sole purpose is to go between; University of California, Santa Barbara; CLASS 40 - Fall 2013 in Elea, now Velia, in southern Italy; and he died in about 430 B.C.E. The _____ soul registers information regarding the form of things, but not does absorb or become those things. advocating the doctrines that virtue is the only good, that the essence of virtue is self-control and individual freedom, and that surrender to any external influence is beneath the dignity of man. Our main sources of information concerning Protagoras are: 1. What type of reasoning argues that there is no way for one culture to judge another? According to Aristotle, the lowest level of soul is the sensitive or sentient soul. Meaning and the Problem of Universals, A Kant-Friesian Approach. Entelechy is Greek for "soul." According to Plato, the ideal state meets three kinds of needs: _____. But if teleology means the use of ends or goals in natural science, then Aristotle was rather a critical innovator of teleological explanation. Saint Bonaventure, ; canonized April 14, 1482; feast day July 15), leading medieval theologian, minister general of the Franciscan order, and cardinal bishop of Albano. Aristotle describes and argues for the four causes in his books Physics and Metaphysics as a part of developing his philosophy of substance.He claims that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world. Practical knowledge consists of skills needed to do such things as play the piano or bake a cake. (B) It defines the scope of our potential as well-functioning human beings. Aristotle believed in _____ level(s) of reality. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. His philosophical foundations draw upon a … chies 1. Ethics is the area of philosophy that _____. Jaspers refers to Socrates' profession of ignorance as _____. Summary of Metaphysics by Aristotle. C. In 1-2 sentences, state the philosophy of the following Sophists: 1. T/F. Protagoras 3. According to Aristotle, the lowest level of soul is the sensitive or sentient soul. Philosophers demand that we provide feelings to justify our knowledge claims. In “Leibnizianisme”, he brings together Aristotle’s entelechy, Leibniz’s monads, and sensitivity as a “general property of matter” (Enc. Socrates used _____ to communicate on more than one level. Human beings contain a _____ that includes the nutritive and sensitive souls. Definition • Spartans defeated Athens and then Romans invaded Greek territory making everything unstable and people were demoralized This material appears in his ethical writings, in a systematic treatise on the nature of the soul (De anima), and in a number of minor monographs on topics such as sense-perception, memory, sleep, and dreams. According to Socrates, there is no such thing as _____. a basic image that represents our conception of the essence of a certain type of person, is an image that has been shared by the whole human race from the earliest times. The Republic concerns the search for _____. For Plato, _____ is the ideal form of government. From the Greek word kosmos meaning "world", "universe" or "orderly structure"; Argument for the existence of God that because it is impossible for any natural thing to be the complete and sufficient source of its own existence, there must be an Uncaused Cause capable of … Hellenic history (i.e. The Socratic dialectic is an especially moving speech, one that raises powerful emotions. Aristotle is the first Western thinker of record to provide an adequate analysis of the _____ of change. Mechane. Acomment on these descriptions will help to clarify Aristotle’stopic. Aristotle - Aristotle - Philosophy of mind: Aristotle regarded psychology as a part of natural philosophy, and he wrote much about the philosophy of mind. _____. Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and lasted through the Hellenistic period (323 BC-30 BC). Which philosophical archetype argues that our private and communal behavior should always maximize pleasure and minimize pain? Greek for "machine"; was a crane that could lift people over buildings as if they were coming down (ex: from heaven) ... OTHER QUIZLET SETS. Socrates considered himself to be a kind of _____. livkraus5. According to Plato, the disordered soul lacks a sense of _____. Eudaimonia comes from two Greek words: Eu-: good Daimon: soul or “self.”A difficult word to translate into English. — Cynic, n. — Cynical, adj. According to Protagoras, the most practical course for most of us _____. Aristotle describes and argues for the four causes in his books Physics and Metaphysics as a part of developing his philosophy of substance.He claims that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world. Yet St. Thomas Aquinas called it the only possible way to define motion by … Describe the Greek social and cultural conditions in the time after Aristotle's death that gave rise to Skepticism, Cynicism, Epicureanism, Stoicism, and Christianity. According to Aristotle, _____ has no distinct characteristics until its entelechy is actualized. Socrates believed that an individual who is at the mercy of bodily pleasures has no concern for virtue in any form. Plato thought that rule by the many _____. _____ is the virtue associated with the guardians. Aristotle was accused of one of the same charges leveled against Socrates-not respecting the gods of the state. Athenian trials consisted of _____ parts. The belief that values reflect the preferences and customs of a given culture is known as _____. Philosophers are more concerned with ideas than they are with the reasons offered to support ideas. 15. a Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. 15. (A) It describes the “inner urge” implanted by nature in all living things. There are in Greek literature a few instances of the use of the word scholastikos to designate a professional philosopher. One of the most durable and intractable issues in the history of philosophy has been the problem of universals.Closely related to this, and a major subject of debate in 20th century philosophy, has been the problem of the nature of the meaning.. According to Bertrand Russell, philosophy is to be studied for the answers it provides. Aristotle's school contained the first important library in the West. It comes from the Greek énteron, meaning “intestine.”. Study Flashcards On Core 250 Exam #1 at Cram.com. Everything that happens to you has a reason—but there’s a way of thinking about this that empowers you in life. In some philosophical systems, a vital force that directs an organism toward self-fulfillment. form can be distinguished from content only in thought, According to Aristotle, _____ answers the question "What is that? Eudaimonia is often translated as “happiness,” but that’s a bit misleading. a presocratic Greek philosopher who said that fire is the origin of all things and that permanence is an illusion as all things are in perpetual flux (circa 500 BC) cosmos everything that exists anywhere; 'ordered whole'; harmonies and contrasting elements _____ holds onto a position regardless of the facts. And what is an aition? Which of the following was most important to the Sophists? Who informed Socrates that he … Aristotle believed in two levels of reality: the natural and the supernatural. written 500 years after fall of Troy, and offers formulaic descriptions of Greek life. [Late Latin entelechīa, from Greek entelekheia : entelēs, complete (en-, … Aristotle defines motion, by which he means change of any kind, as the actuality of a potentiality as such (or as movable, or as a potentiality -- Physics 201a 10-11, 27-29, b 4-5). ... OTHER QUIZLET SETS. (A) It refers to the "inner urge" implanted by nature in all living things that compel them to realize their happiness and potential. explains the importance of "entelechy" to the Greek Humanist philosopher Aristotle? Greek art, he says, was an especially marvelous form of poiêsis lost to us in the modern construction of the aesthetic. His philosophical foundations draw upon a … According to Aristotle, the ultimate goal or purpose for which a thing exists is known as its _____ cause. In Greek philosophy, Eudaimonia means achieving the best conditions possible for a human being, in every sense–not only happiness, but also virtue, morality, and a meaningful life. In Metaphysics Α.1, Aristotle says that “all mensuppose what is called wisdom (sophia) to deal with the firstcauses (aitia) and the principles (archai) ofthings” (981b28), and it is these causes and principles that heproposes to study in this work. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! In Plato’s “ Simile of the Sun ” passage from his work “ Republic,” Plato used the idea of light as a necessary requirement of knowledge, in part, to disprove this particular philosophy that contended that knowledge was a function of perception. the form of essence (the idea of what going to make, either in mind of sculptor or potentially in the marble), that which sets the thing/process/change in motion (actually sculpting), the place and ultimate purpose of the resulting object in the universe to help make the universe perfect, artistotle's- one world made of things that don't change (morphe: turtle-ness) and things that do change (hyle). When Plato died, Aristotle was appointed head of the Academy. ", Callicles preached the doctrine of social obligation known as the "common good.". Socrates thought he possessed _____ wisdom. In it, he says the mind or soul is the “first entelechy” of the body, the “cause and principle” of … 2. Here, you'll find the meanings of all the Greek and Latin root words commonly used in constructing biological and medical terminology. Twenty-first century American culture bears no resemblance to the democratic state of Plato's Athens. Part of Aristotle’s point is that there is no one answer to this question. Socrates A. Once convicted, Socrates was expected to _____ at the next stage of his trial. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. ): Protagoras is a leading character in Plato's dialogue Protagoras and Protagoras' doctrines are discussed extensively in Plato's Theaetetus. From lowest to highest, the levels of awareness are _____. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher. Which term was first used by the Pythagoreans to characterize the universe as an ordered whole consisting of harmonies of contrasting elements? PHILO 103 - Exam 1. No longer does art reveal the world as it did for the Greeks; now it is merely one experience alongside others. The Greek word is aition (plural aitia); sometimes it takes a feminine form, aitia (plural aitiai). Which of the following most accurately. Everything that happens to you has a reason—but there’s a … humans always seek what they perceive to be their own welfare. The problem of universals goes back to Plato and Aristotle. According to Plato, the seeds of tyranny are abuses of _____. … did not understand that opinions change, the truth does not, the relationship of knowledge to opinion, reality to experience, and metaphysics to epistemology. _____. Definition of The Theory of Forms. Leonardo da Vinci (English: / ˌ l iː ə ˈ n ɑːr d oʊ d ə ˈ v ɪ n tʃ i, ˌ l iː oʊ ˈ-, ˌ l eɪ oʊ ˈ-/; 14/15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian polymath of the High Renaissance who is widely considered one of the most diversely talented individuals ever to have lived. Aristotle believed that human beings are not separate from nature, but are part of nature. Hylomorphism, (from Greek hylē, “matter”; morphē, “form”), in philosophy, metaphysical view according to which every natural body consists of two intrinsic principles, one potential, namely, primary matter, and one actual, namely, substantial form. The Renaissance view of nature began to take shape as antithetical to the Greek view in the work of Copernicus (1473-1543), Telesio (1508-88), and Bruno (1548-1600). James Lovelock gave this name to his hypothesis after a suggestion from the novelist William Golding , who was living in the same village as Lovelock at the time ( Bowerchalke , Wiltshire , UK). Another name for a paradigmatic individual is _____. Socrates insisted that the "real person" is not the body, but the psyche. Start studying Weekly Quiz on Aristotles Virtue Ethics. Plato's ____ illustrates the path from ignorance to enlightenment. 82 terms. Heraclitus's philosophy was characterized by belief in an anthropomorphized God, or Logos. The Burial of the Count of Orgaz has long been considered one of El Greco's finest paintings. Plato and Aristotle Similarities and Differences. And what is an aition? Historically, however, the word, as now used, is to be traced, not to Greek usage, but to early Christian institutions. The first records of the word enteral come from the early 1900s. By 479, the Persians were forced back into Asia Minor. Entelechy, (from Greek entelecheia), in philosophy, that which realizes or makes actual what is otherwise merely potential. Part of Aristotle’s point is that there is no one answer to this question. Which of the following most accurately explains the importance of “ techne ” to the Greek Humanist philosophers? The Persian navy, however, found the Greek fleet waiting for it in the Bay of Salamis. The history of Western philosophy has been dominated by _____. Perhaps the greatest of the Sophists was _____. Philosophers generally define knowledge as _____. 1. T/F. The curriculum of th… ancient Greek times) was largely dominated by the prominent theory of hedonism (Kesebir & Diener, 2008). The Sophists taught that good and bad are defined by nature. According to Plato, _____ is excellence of function of the whole. According to Aristotle, the lowest level of soul is the _____ soul. In the philosophy of Aristotle, the actualization of the potential form or function of a substance. What was the Oracle at Delphi's ambiguous reply to the question: Is anyone wiser than Socrates? Logic is the area of philosophy that _____. More… _____ is probably the most widely read work in Western philosophy. Aristotle’s most famous teacher was Plato (c. 428–c. In regard to systems of government, Plato concluded that _____. the function of education is to draw the truth out of the student. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher. It was the central doctrine of Aristotle’s philosophy of nature. A Look at the Philosophy of Happiness. The sophos were highly regarded by the communities in which they lived. Socrates used sarcasm as a technique for keeping his listeners alert and involved. From its early reception by the Toledans, who undoubtedly held this tributary painting in high regard, to the contemporary critics and visitors who still flock in droves to see this masterpiece, The Burial of the Count of Orgaz has generally been received with overwhelming praise. Wisdom is a form of knowledge based primarily on education and intelligence. The early philosopher's "fanatical concern" with logical consistency and rules of thinking led to theories that were both logically consistent and matched the observed facts. The Ring of Gyges presents the _____ position. The Renaissance view of nature began to take shape as antithetical to the Greek view in the work of Copernicus (1473-1543), Telesio (1508-88), and Bruno (1548-1600). In Plato’s “ Simile of the Sun ” passage from his work “ Republic,” Plato used the idea of light as a necessary requirement of knowledge, in part, to disprove this particular philosophy that contended that knowledge was a function of perception. Aristotle (384–322 B.C. The body and the soul are not, as Plato would have it, two distinct entities, but are different parts or aspects of the same thing. The Socratic method is also known as _____. ", ideas have truth value to the extent that they produce practical results. Thomas (Thomas Theorem) IV. Epistemology is the area of philosophy that _____. Philosophers distinguish between knowledge and wisdom. indifference to both the presence and absence of material pleasures. _____ said that "Man is the measure of all things. Socrates thought that the first step toward wisdom _____. The definition is a conjunction of two terms which normally contradict each other, along with, in Greek, a qualifying clause which seems to make the contradiction inescapable. Protagoras claimed that "all things are measured against nature's standard. The mythical Gaia was the primal Greek goddess personifying the Earth, the Greek version of "Mother Nature" (from Ge = Earth, and Aia = PIE grandmother), or the Earth Mother. The word "philosophy" derives from Greek roots meaning "_____.". Which of the following most accurately explains the importance of “ techne ” to the Greek Humanist philosophers? Happiness. Plato, in his theory of forms, separates the sensible world (appearances) of the intelligible world (ideas) and the intelligible world was the only reality, the foundation of all truth. Second, he referred to entelechy, which is “that which turns potential into reality.” Aristotle believed that everything happening to you today has a purpose because it turns you into the person you are becoming. It is almost impossible to separate what Socrates taught from his whole personality. But in Aristotle’s Metaphysics, at the heart of his philosophy, such separation removes any intelligibility and meaning to the world. Which Presocratic philosopher distinguished between appearance and reality in a way that contrasted apparent permanence with hidden reality? is the result of living a fully functioning life. A complete explanation of any material change will use all four causes. _____ is what we think of today as a combination of the mind and soul. An aition is just whatever one can cite in answer to a “why?” question. Surprising little is known of Protagoras' life with any certainty. The hyle is trying to be the perfect example of thing which the morphe represents, essential inside of the contingent, to find truths look at physical things, epistemological study in which ideas come from the mind, epistemological study in which ideas come from looking at things directly, any system that tends toward an end goal (achieve something), everything is imperfect unto itself but is redeemed in virtue by being a perfect part of a large something else = perfect universe/telos, whatever circumstance that prevents hyle from perfectly expressing unchanging morphe, term for aristotle's theory that all thing/ substance has hylo and morphe, associated with the hyle- could be anything, associated with the morphe because it's what the thing/ substance actually is, every substance/ thing is a teleological system because it has an inner morphe (form) and an outer hyle (matter), hyle is the basis for the system based upon that each individual object has its own hyle/ thisness = ability to tell apart individual objects.