The Fall of Constantinople in 1453 showed the military weakness of the Christians in Eastern Europe. Yet, to the Roman Empire, this was mare nostrum (“our sea”), an inland sea rather than a frontier. After World War II, much was heard of “the European idea.” Essentially, this meant the idea of European unity, at first confined to western Europe but by the beginning of the 1990s seeming able at length to embrace central and eastern Europe as well. FIND OUT MORE. A printable version of Brief History of Europe is available. A general history of Europe : from the origins of civilization to the present time by Robinson, James Harvey, 1863-1936; Breasted, James Henry, 1865-1935; Smith, Emma Peters. The last vestiges of serfdom were abolished in Austria-Hungary in 1848. Europe's antiquity dates from the Minoan civilization, the Myceneans and later on Homer's Iliad in Ancient Greece of around 700 BC.  The Balkan nations began to regain their independence from the Ottoman Empire. It is traditionally divided into ancient (before the fall of the Western Roman Empire) medieval, and modern (after the fall of Constantinople). Europe in Year 2000. There are several reasons. History of Europe - A Historical Atlas of Europe from Year 1 until Year 2000. Judt, p.632/33, "The Great Famine and the Black Death - 1315-1317, 1346-1351 - Lectures in Medieval History - Dr. Lynn H. Nelson, Emeritus Professor, Medieval History, KU", "The End of Europe's Middle Ages - Ottoman Turks", The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England, http://oror.essortment.com/fallofthesovi_rkcm.htm, An Atlas of European History at Wikimedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Europe&oldid=6454370, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Many of Europe’s fields have been battlefields, and many of Europe’s cities, it has been said, were built on bones. Successive waves of invasion, mainly from the east, were followed by centuries of rivalry and conflict, both within Europe and overseas. The fall of the Western Roman Empire was followed by a decline of Western Europe. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It was called the Great War but now most often called World War I or the First World War. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Were the Normans descendants of Vikings? So gentle … It is traditionally divided into ancient medieval, and modern. By comparison with other continents, western Europe is small and immensely varied, divided by rivers and mountains and cut into by inlets and creeks. Henry C. Lea Professor of Medieval History, Harvard University, 1980–86. Within five years of the war’s end, the French foreign minister Robert Schuman, prompted by Jean Monnet, proposed to Germany the first practical move toward European unity, and the West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer agreed. Each side wanted to promote their type of government. Others involved in that first step included the statesmen Alcide De Gasperi and Paul-Henri Spaak. our editorial process. Was the euro introduced in 1999? Can Astrakhan, for instance, be regarded as European? We can evaluate the influence of these important movements in the course of time, by comparing them to the normal periods, to the "control years" in some way. 1349 burning of Jews-European chronicle on Black Death.jpg 868 × 684; 268 KB. It is by its nature broad brush history, but Davies includes plenty of small details and historical anecdotes which bring a sense of realism to the history he is describing. The French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, conquered and reformed the social structure of the continent through war up to 1815, when he met his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo and was sent away into exile. A Brief History of Europe is a free content online book published on English Wikibooks. Simon Jenkins’s survey of European history is wide-ranging, pithy and, for the most part, accurate. These questions have acquired new importance as Europe has come to be more than a geographic expression. 08 Jan 2021. The period known as classical antiquity… History of Europe, account of European peoples and cultures beginning with the first appearance of anatomically modern humans in Europe. 1730 Dutch chart of history and geography of European states.jpg 14,354 × 12,138; 36.49 MB. In a sense it was implicitly prefigured by the Roman Empire. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). FIND OUT MORE. Updated July 10, 2019 Europe has long been a seed of political, cultural, and economic influence. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. Although uniquely favoured by fertile soils and temperate climates, they have long proved themselves warlike. If the Ural Mountains mark the eastern boundary of Europe, where does it lie to the south of them? This is a work of phenomenal education and breadth of knowledge. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "The illusion that Communism was reformable, that, "Gorbachev did more than just let the colonies go. Articles treating specific topics in European history include Byzantine Empire; Steppe, the; World War I; and World War II. For the histories of individual countries, see specific articles by name. The discovery of these early civilizations was a result of investigations by a new breed of 19th century archaeologists who studied the classical literature of the Ancient world for its historical value rather than its mythical content. Early inhabitants during the Paleolithic Age, in an effort to survive, grouped together into small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and hunting for wild animals. Europe’s diversity thus helped foster its impulse to unite. It was followed by Crusades from west to rescue the Holy Land from Muslim invasion. The Roman Republic was established in 509 BC, which was usurped by Octavian's new Roman Empire at its first century BC peak. This article treats the history of European society and culture. They led respectively a Western Bloc and an Eastern Bloc, dividing Europe. International Holocaust Remembrance Day – live concert 27/1/21. Price New from Used from Hardcover "Please retry" $30.99 . As for Europe, a brief chronological account of its significant events begins during prehistoric times with the emergence of Homo sapiens (early man), roughly 40,000 years ago. From then on, many others have followed in their footsteps, striving to build on this vision through successive treaties. This book is intended for intermediate readers. While many history books focus on a limited area, such as the Vietnam War, other texts examine far broader subjects, and there are plenty of volumes narrating Europe's past from prehistory until today. After the Franco-Prussian War, Italy and Germany were formed, each from groups of smaller countries which spoke the same languages, in 1870 and 1871. A new schism within the church's authority in 1054 was added to the earlier division that had persisted since 451. In the desperation of war, the Russian Revolution promised the people "peace, bread and land" and led to the end of the Russian Empire and its replacement by the formation of the Soviet Union. The Industrial Revolution, beginning in Great Britain, allowed masses of people, not just the rich, to escape for the first time from lives of being always poor and barely able to afford either food or shelter. Europe in Year 1300. After this war Communism spread to Central and Eastern Europe, including the relatively new Eastern European countries of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, and in Asia North Vietnam and North Korea, and, slightly later, to Cuba in the Carribean Sea very near to North America. Without their energy and motivation, we would not be living in the sphere of peace and stability that we take for granted. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Web. Remove Ads Advertisement . Some of the best-known civilizations of prehistoric Europe were the Minoan and the Mycenaean, which flourished during the Bronze Age until they collapsed in a short period of time around 1200 BC. EU Pioneers. Omissions? It was not until after World War II, however, that European statesmen began to seek ways of uniting Europe peacefully on a basis of equality instead of domination by one or more great powers. Governments changed in many countries, some by elections and some by revolutions. But after humanoid settlers arrived between 850,000 and 700,000 BC, Europe’s temperate climate and unthreatening environment would make it ripe for agricultural … It took in wars which were already happening in other places, most notably the war between Japan and China. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, The relationship between nature and culture, The term and concept before the 18th century, Enlightenment scorn and Romantic admiration, Late antiquity: the reconfiguration of the Roman world, The organization of late imperial Christianity, The transformation of thought and learning, The structure of ecclesiastical and devotional life, From persuasion to coercion: The emergence of a new ecclesiastical discipline, From territorial principalities to territorial monarchies. The Thirty Years War, the Treaty of Westphalia and the Glorious Revolution prepared for expansion and enlightenment. The governments soon fell into two main groups, those who believed in freedom and human rights and those who followed fascism. As more and more small property holders were granted the vote, especially in France and the UK, socialist and trade union activity developed and revolution gripped Europe in 1848. They also exported both nationalism and weaponry. Communism became less attractive when it became clear that it could promote economic growth less effectively than the capitalistic Western states and that it was not suited for a reform that allowed freedom of speech for everyone. For the lives of prominent European figures, see specific biographies by name—e.g., Charlemagne, Erasmus, and Bismarck. Europe in Year 1500. Even now, some question whether Malta or Cyprus is a European island. Related topics are discussed in such articles as those on religion (e.g., Celtic religion; Greek religion; Germanic religion; Christianity; and Judaism), literature (e.g., English literature, Scandinavian literature, and Russian literature), and the fine arts (e.g., painting, history of; and music, history of).